X-ray diffraction

Crystal lattices have characteristic distances that diffract hard X-rays when Bragg’s law is satisfied. Diffraction is useful in identification of crystal structures, which is applicable to identification of bulk phases.

Measurements can be conducted under reaction conditions to complement or even combine with XAS

Tuning the Properties in Perovskite Materials for Photovoltaics

October 31, 2017

The search continues for solar energy materials that are efficient and inexpensive and simple to make. Films made of metal halide perovskite crystals are good candidates because of their impressive solar cell efficiencies and their low cost to produce. An advantage of metal halide perovskite materials is the ability to tune their band gap, which determines the wavelengths of light that can be collected by the solar cell.

X-ray Study Reveals How Silver-to-Silicon Contacts Form for Solar Cells

April 30, 2016

Most solar panels use technology that employs a silver-silicon interface. Because silver is expensive and the lead used in the creation of this interface is toxic, researchers are interested searching for other materials that could work instead of these components. A team of scientists are working to understand the process involved in the silver-silicon contact formation so that alternatives that perform the same function can be found.

Ultra-high Charge Carrier Mobility in an Organic Semiconductor by Vertical Chain Alignment

March 31, 2016

Current technologies of light emitting diodes (LEDs), photovoltaic systems (PVs), and other optical electronic devices typically use inorganic silicon-based semiconductors. However,  organic polymers could provide thinner, lighter and cheaper opto-electronic devices (like OLEDs and OPVs).

Effect of an Ultrathin Coating on Stabilizing Li-ion Battery Cathodes

January 31, 2016

The widespread adoption of renewable energy in many applications, such as electric cars, is dependant on the development of better batteries. A lithium ion battery can be made to have a higher capacity, better thermally stability, and lower cost by changing the cobalt component of the battery cathode (usually LiCoO2) to a mixture of nickel, manganese, and cobalt. While providing great benefits, this material, known as NMC, also has a downside: increased reactivity at the cathode resulting in a shorter battery lifetime. To counteract this reactivity, scientists at the National Renewable Energy Lab in Colorado developed a coating for the NMC cathode.

Multiscale Speciation of U and Pu at Chernobyl, Hanford, Los Alamos, McGuire AFB, Mayak, and Rocky Flats

June 26, 2015

When a geographical area is contaminated with radioactive elements, time and heat can cause them to combine with other atoms to form a variety of compounds. Knowing what compounds form and when they form is important for containing and cleaning contaminated sites. Computer models can make predictions but are limited to the currently known reactions and compounds that can be described in the laboratory.  A collaboration of scientists has taken samples from the fields of six different contaminated sites to discover which chemical species are formed from uranium and plutonium. The sites studied released these elements under different circumstances and into different environments.

Experimental Station 10-2b

Beam line 10-2 is a wiggler end-station that splits time between the front hutch (BL10-2a), which is instrumented for x-ray absorption spectroscopy imaging, and the rear hutch (BL10-2b), which has a dedicated 6-circle diffractometer that is used for materials scattering.  The BL10-2b rear hutch is equiped with a six-circle diffractometer for x-ray diffraction/scattering.

Experimental Station 11-3

Beam line 11-3 is a fixed energy (12.7 keV) wiggler side-station dedicated primarily for wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS). BL11-3 is equipped with a two-dimensional Rayonix MX225 CCD area detector. Supports sample-to-detector distances of 80-550 mm. There are sample environments available for both transmission and grazing incidence geometries. Sample heating is available for both single sample transmission and grazing incidence geometries.

Experimental Station 7-2

Beam line 7-2 is a wiggler end station dedicated for x-ray scattering and time-resolved experiments (>0.005 s). BL7-2 is equipped with a customized Huber type 5021 6+2 axis diffractometer and uses PILATUS 100K and 300K area detectors (including for time-resolved experiments), a Si crystal-analyzer with point detector for high resolution studies, or a 1 mradian Soller slit with a Vortex Si drift detector. 

Putting the Spin on Graphite: Observing the Spins of Impurity Atoms Align

February 28, 2014

Carbon-based materials are extremely lightweight and have thermal, mechanical and electrical properties that are of great interest for use in functional devices. Carbon materials can be manufactured in virtually any shape and even with dimensions on the micro- and nanoscales. Recent research is now aimed at exploiting the spin and magnetism of carbon-based materials for data storage devices – a field called spintronics.

Tunable Transmittance of Near-infrared and Visible Light in Reconstructed Nanocrystal-in-Glass Composite Films

October 31, 2013

Amorphous materials such as glasses have optical, electrochemical and transport characteristics that are closely linked to their inner structures. Modifying the structure of an amorphous material can create new properties that may be of interest for industrial applications. Recently, researchers have altered niobium oxide glass by inserting tin-doped indium oxide nanocrystals into its structure.

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