SSRL Science Highlights Archive

Approximately 1,600 scientists visit SSRL annually to conduct experiments in broad disciplines including life sciences, materials, environmental science, and accelerator physics. Science highlights featured here and in our monthly newsletter, Headlines, increase the visibility of user science as well as the important contribution of SSRL in facilitating basic and applied scientific research. Many of these scientific highlights have been included in reports to funding agencies and have been picked up by other media. Users are strongly encouraged to contact us when exciting results are about to be published. We can work with users and the SLAC Office of Communication to develop the story and to communicate user research findings to a much broader audience. Visit SSRL Publications for a list of the hundreds of SSRL-related scientific papers published annually and to add your most recent publications to this collection.

While we continue to refine our science highlights content you may access older science summaries that date between 04/2001 to 06/2010 by visiting http://www-ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/science/sciencehighlights.html. We will be offering science summaries that date from 06/2012 to the present soon.

April 2015

Creating novel enzymes to perform specific chemical reactions is a field of great promise, but it is still in its early stages. Efforts usually involve using well-studied protein structural and functional domains to create new active sites. Scientists have recently developed a different approach, creating the active site in the interface between proteins in a multi-protein complex. They started with a well-researched, natural protein that, in its natural state, does not form complexes with other proteins, and nor does it catalyze the desired reaction.

Macromolecular Crystallography
BL9-2, BL14-1
April 2015
Daniel Friebel, SUNCAT, Alexis T. Bell, JCAP

The sun provides more energy than what could ever possibly be consumed. However, switching to solar energy to end our dependence on fossil energy resources is made difficult not merely by how much is consumed, but rather by the pattern of how energy is used: significant amounts are consumed by road and air transportation and must be provided “on board” in the form of fuels. This problem could be solved with new devices that convert sunlight into renewable fuels, for example, by driving a light-induced current between two electrodes that split water by electrolysis into hydrogen and oxygen. Currently, the limiting step for the viability of this process is the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) that takes place at the anode. 

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy
BL6-2
March 2015
Yijin Liu, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Joy C. Andrews, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Florian Meirer, Utrecht University, Bert M. Weckhuysen, Utrecht University

One of the most important processes used in petroleum refineries is called fluid catalytic cracking (FCC). This chemical process converts large or heavy molecules of crude oil into smaller and lighter hydrocarbons, such as gasoline. This useful conversion is due in great part to a tiny catalyst particle just 50 to 150 millionths of a meter in diameter. The particle consists of a complex mixture of silica-alumina, clay and zeolite in a porous structure that enables the crude oil molecules to flood the material and reach the catalytically active areas within the particle. After the conversion process, this structure also allows the lighter molecules to leave the catalyst.

BL6-2c
March 2015
Thomas Spatzal, California Institute of Technology, Douglas C. Rees, California Institute of Technology
Nitrogenase Fig 1

As a basic biological building block of amino acids and DNA, nitrogen is necessary for life. Yet most of the Earth’s nitrogen is contained in the atmosphere as dinitrogen, which most organisms are unable to use because they cannot break dinitrogen’s N-N-triple bond. A few microorganisms, however, are able to use an enzyme called nitrogenase to catalyze the transformation of dinitrogen into bioavailable ammonia.

Macromolecular Crystallography
BL12-2
March 2015
Binzhi Li, University of California, Davis, Yayoi Takamura, University of California, Davis
SQUID_fig1

Advanced permanent magnets with low cost and high energy density are important for next-generation technologies, and one promising type of advanced magnet is the exchange spring magnet. This type of nanocomposite comprises two phases of magnetic materials: “hard” magnets, which can remain uniformly magnetized under large fluctuations in magnetic fields, and are often made of rare earth elements, and “soft” magnets, which have a high energy density but their magnetic states can easily be disturbed by small magnetic fields.

X-ray reflectivity, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy
BL2-1
February 2015
Young-Sang Yu, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Yijin Liu, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Jordi Cabana, University of Illinois at Chicago
operando figure

Lithium-ion batteries, the mobile power source for most electronic devices, play an important role in everyday life. In the coming decades, they could play an even greater role, powering electric vehicles or storing electrical energy for the grid – if researchers can find ways to improve them.

In particular, the energy density of current batteries is limited by the capacity of the positive electrode, which in turn is determined by the properties and concentration of its active material. By better understanding this material and its limitations, researchers hope to design the highest capacity electrodes possible.

BL6-2c
February 2015
David Singer, Kent State University
Figure 1

When radioactive elements enter the environment – whether through natural processes or an accidental spill – it’s important to understand how to clean them up. This is especially true at the interface between water and minerals, which dominate the surface area of most geological landscapes. 

Recently, researchers came to SSRL to better understand how trace radioactive elements like uranium and strontium come to preferentially enrich materials that have pores with diameters just a few nanometers wide, called mesopores.

BL11-2
February 2015
James J. Lee, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource
Figure 1

For three decades, scientists have worked to engineer materials that allow electricity to flow without resistance at ambient temperatures. That could make just about everything that runs on electricity more efficient – saving enormous amounts of energy. But current superconductors are far from that dream: they only operate well below minus 135 degrees C. 

A recent study suggests a promising path toward room-temperature superconductors.

BL5-4
January 2015
Makoto Hashimoto, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource
Figure 1

For years, scientists have chased after the promise of high-temperature superconductors – materials that carry current through a material with 100% efficiency. Yet the closest they have come to creating such a material still requires temperatures more than 100 degrees Celsius below freezing.

Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy
BL5-4
January 2015
Scott Bailey, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health
CRISPR figure

With more viruses that infect bacteria than any other type of biological entity, bacteria have developed a sophisticated means of defending themselves. At the heart of their defenses is a system called CRISPR.

Macromolecular Crystallography
BL12-2

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